4 edition of Cost of chlorine versus sodium hypo-chlorite in sewage treatment. found in the catalog.
Cost of chlorine versus sodium hypo-chlorite in sewage treatment.
San Francisco (Calif.). Board of Supervisors. Budget Analyst.
|The Physical Object|
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This process occurs when the salt, or sodium chloride (NaCl), dissolves in the water and separates into sodium ions and chloride ions. By passing a low voltage electrical current through the water, the sodium is removed and the chloride turns into chlorine in the form of hypochlorous acid (HClO) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), also known as bleach, is available as liquid sanitizer that can be mixed with water and used immediately. Since minimal monitoring is required, NaOCl is a common chlorine source for chlorinated water in smaller scale operations. Sodium hypochlorite will cause pH to rise above so the pH must be reduced prior to treatment of produce (Figure 2).
A North Carolina city replaces the disinfection systems in its water treatment plant with an on-site sodium hypochlorite generating system. For many years the use of gaseous chlorine at water treatment plants has been an effective method of disinfection. In fact, it is currently the most commonly used disinfectant throughout the U.S. chlorine demand. When the chlorine residual is to be controlled to a level greater than or equal to ppm, a dechlorination residual control system will work effectively. For treatment systems requiring chlorine residuals below mg/l, use a sulfite analyzer in lieu of the chlorine residual analyzer to control to a positive sulfite level.
Chlorine gas for disinfection and sulphur dioxide for dechlorination have been the chemicals of choice for the medium to larger capacity wastewater treatment plants that disinfect by chlorination. Sodium hypochlorite for disinfection and liquid sulphate/sulfite compounds for dechlorination tend to be used at the smaller plants. Chlorine-based disinfectants are available in liquid form (sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide) and solid form (calcium hypochlorite). Household bleach contains % sodium hypochlorite (52, ppm). Hypochlorite solutions of 50–2, ppm are used to inactivate microbial agents. Calcium hypochlorite contains 66% chlorine, and has been used.
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The article discusses the advantages and limitations of using sodium hypochlorite, and provides comparisons of capital costs and annual O&M costs of chlorine gas, commercial sodium hypochlorite, and on‐site sodium hypochlorite generation. The article includes a total present worth analysis for a 20‐mgd sodium hypochlorite disinfection by: 2.
Equivalent sodium hypochlorite - x = gallons of % sodium hypochlorite or x x x 24 = liters of % sodium hypochlorite Basis - Sodium hypochlorite supplied from delivery trucks and pumped into one (1) 2, gallon ( m3) on-site.
the wastewater treatment needs of all communities across the United States. As a result, small hypochlorite solutions, and chlorine compounds in solid or liquid form. Liquid sodium hypochlorite C Chlorine is more cost-effective than UV or ozone disinfection.
Sodium chlorite selectively oxidizes sulfide and related organic odors. Unlike hypochlorite, sodium chlorite does not react with ammonia, and does 2H 2 S + NaClO 2S0 + 2H O + NaCl mg/L of sodium chlorite per 1 mg/L of sulfide.
Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2) is applied to the wastewater. Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Chlorine Disinfection Author: US EPA, OW, OWM, Water Permits Division Subject: Fact sheet on disinfection, one of the primary mechanisms for the inactivation or destruction of pathogenic organisms.
Contains information on how to use chlorine as a disinfectant for municipal wastewater. Also available in Spanish. APPLICABILITY Chlorine is the most widely used disinfectant for municipal wastewater because it destroys target organisms by oxidizing cellular material.
Chlorine can be supplied in many forms, which include chlorine gas, hypochlorite solutions, and other chlorine compounds in solid or liquid form. As with chlorine gas, it is relatively cheap and can economically disinfect small to large amounts of water.
If kept sealed, shelf life is not a factor. It can be easily stored for months. Sodium Hypochlorite; disadvantages. Although safer to handle than chlorine gas, NaOCl is still a hazardous and corrosive substance.
Used for pools and town water treatment. This chlorine produces acids — hypochlorous acid (free chlorine) and hydrochloric acid — when added to pool water, whereas the first two chlorines produce an alkali. With gas chlorine, the addition of an alkali is needed to keep the pH up to the desired pH Positives: No handling required.
The key difference between chlorine and sodium hypochlorite is that the chlorine (Cl 2) is a pale yellow color gas whereas the sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a greenish-yellow solid at room temperature.
Chlorine and sodium hypochlorite are chemical compounds of the chemical element chlorine (Cl). The term chlorine chemically describes the chemical element, but in common. Sodium hypochlorite is available for waterworks purposes as a clear solution containing 14 − 15 % W W of available chlorine.
It is frequently used in place of chlorine gas for safety reasons. It can be supplied in small containers or in bulk, but loses its chlorine strength when exposed to atmosphere or sunlight (for properties and storage see Table ). • Sodium Hypochlorite – Contains between 5% to 15% available chlorine.
(% typical) five times the cost • Sodium Ascorbate (Imported) – Granular – over 6 times the cost. log book. • When you achieve the desired chlorine residual level in your discharge water, stop. For example chlorine bleach commonly costs $2 to $5 a gallon for 5% to 7% chlorine.
However, peroxide may cost $10 to $14 a gallon for a 7% peroxide solution. So in a straight comparison, peroxide seems more expensive. But peroxide acts approximately twice as fast a chlorine. For example, 1.o PPM of iron takes to PPM of chlorine to be. The graph below represents the accumulated net-present value cost of UV and sodium hypochlorite for an actual wastewater treatment plant in New Jersey, USA.
Based on a design flow of 16 MGD and average flow of 10 MGD, the cost of the UV system would almost equal the cost of staying with hypochlorite in 5 years. Treatments costs with PAA were competitive to disinfection with sodium hypochlorite and sodium bisulfite.
Residual PAA in the wastewater at discharge was less than 1 ppm thereby eliminating the need of a neutralization step. No measurable effect was observed by Frankfort laboratory personnel on pH and. M.F. Tiernan to measure chlorine gas, dissolve it in water, and apply the solution was installed in Boonton, N.J., replacing the use of sodium hypochlorite bleach.
These developments paved the way for the future extension of water disinfection techniques utilizing liquid chlorine. Hypochlorite water chlorination gradually decreased in. Another consideration in utility decisions on chlorine is cost. Elemental chlorine gas is percent chlorine, while sodium hypochlorite-- or bleach -- is about 14 percent chlorine.
reaction with spiked precursors in wastewater Booth and Lester (), Crathorne et al. Background Oxidation Potential Oxidant eV Hydroxyl Radical Ozone Peracetic Acid Hydrogen Peroxide Permanganate Hypochlorite Ion Hypchlorous Acid Monochloramine Sodium Hypochlorite (Chlorine Bleach) Sodium Chlorite Wastewater Disinfection with Chlorine Dioxide Introduction Chlorine dioxide (ClO 2) is effective as both a disinfectant and an oxidant in wastewater treatment.
It has several distinct chemical advantages compared to the traditional use of chlorine in wastewater treatment. Chlorine dioxide is. Low-Strength Sodium Hypochlorite (Sodium Hypochlorite (>12–15% NaOCl), 71 On-Site Atmospheric Pressure Chlorine Gas, 76 Chemical Supply and Quality: Salt, Water, and Other Required Chemicals, 76 Summary of Chlorination Technology Attributes, 80 References, 80 Endnotes, 80 mindb 3 9/29/14 PM AbASQRVAAAAOAAAO.
A common exception is batch treatment systems, where one tank is typically employed (ref. 38). Destruction of dilute solutions of cyanide by chlorination can be accomplished by direct addition of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), or by addition of chlorine gas plus sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the wastewater.
In the Hong Kong Harbour Area Treatment Scheme (HATS), a concentrated 10% chlorine solution (in sodium hypochlorite with a specific gravity of ) is used directly to disinfect sewage that receives a chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT).
The dense chlorine solution is injected into the treated sewage flow in the form of multiple dense.Note: The equations for sodium hypochlorite solution strength preparation are based on mixing % NaOCl (w/w) to 10 gallons of water.
Equations 1B & 2B: Volume (ounces) of % NaOCl added to 10 gallons of water for target solution strength (valid between to % NaOCl, w/v). Chlorine Gas Traditional disinfectant of choice A gas at normal room temperature Bulk Sodium Hypochlorite O&M Cost.
24 Cost Summary. Total Construction Cost. $1, Total Annual O&M Cost. $, Present Worth of Total Annual O&M (20 years, 8% discount rate, 0% inflation).